Literature Review: Augmented Reality

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Current State of Student Project Development

Technology innovations come in many forms and sizes. It is traditionally a leap in the path created before by its predecessors. Pushing the envelope on what is possible as it moves forward. Often times redefining what we thought was possible. Augmented Reality redefines the way we see the world. It, for lack of a better word, augments our reality both literally and figuratively. We use our eyes to take in a completely new experience that has been offered because of this technology. All new direction is made possible in part by the devices we now have in our pockets. Devices that were impossible to dream of just 15 years ago. They were spoken of in science fiction or seen vaguely portrayed in movies. These devices are found in abundance now and because of this, the crucial instrument in this Augmented Reality experience.

Students see and hear of the Augmented Reality experience. The potential for it to enter into their classroom and impact them is closer than it may seem. While still relatively new for the average consumer. Augmented Reality apps and programming tools are funneling down to more than just large corporations. In every engineering design process comes a time to prototype a design to be held and analyzed. Traditional ways are done so with 3D printing and modeling. Due to limitations on size and costs, these classroom prototypes must remain small regardless of their final dimensions. The scale is therefore sacrificed. When the students seek out peer evaluation and feedback, the scale or quality of the 3D model lacks in ability to tell the whole picture. The peers then make suggestions and assumptions based on this model which cause more prototyping and therefore eating into more resources. At the end of the design process, the students must present their work. Current tools tell the audience only part of the story. Augmented Reality will enhance and magnify the assessment and presentation phase of a student's project. Allowing the audience to be immersed in the experience and see things as they truly are intended.

 
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Engineering Design Process Usage

Augmented Reality, AR, is a fascinating and still growing technology workspace. Using the camera and screen on a device, virtual images are displayed and follow the user's movement in the simulated environment. Unlike Virtual Reality, the experience is added to the area you are currently in. What you are looking at becomes the canvas. For instance, detailed information of specific systems can be shown easily using AR. Annotations can also be added to the display to allow clarification of the presentation.

In Romania, two mobile software developers have documented their thoughts on specific areas where AR can revolutionize the way city planning will begin and end. Ioan and Ion-Costel-Marius dive deeply into the process.

A growing number of AR applications allow you to visualize the building's building steps, from early design to construction.

(Adascalitei & Baltoi, 2018)

This can give every stakeholder in the designing and building process a chance to look quickly at the construction. They can be involved from the beginning of the process and as prototypes are made. From the job site, using tools like AR creates a collaborative walk thru of areas. Money and time are saved when this technology is utilized. Prototypes can be examined several times before each step in the iteration. Mobile Augmented Reality increases the range of impact and "provides an ideal context for a design team to analyze." (Adascalitei & Baltoi, 2018)

Access to this technology is everywhere and readily available. How to use it effectively is still being explored. IKEA, a home furnishing company, is one of many companies to release AR elements to their apps to help the consumer visualize the placement of products before purchasing. The technology has also gone underground with traditionally hidden construction utilities being visualized without needing to dig deep. Use of the AR platforms provided by mobile software developers is being handled by so many. From the end user to the architect, AR is helping project resources to be better allocated. Saving costs and creating improved experiences along the engineering design process.

 
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The most common use of AR is in overlapping

a real place with virtual objects.

(Adascalitei & Baltoi, 2018)

 

Classroom AR Usage

AR has been around for a few years, but nothing changed the impact of the technology until money hit the market (Donally, 2017). The money came in at the same time companies like Apple released the ARKit and all its tools. Developers could then create more realistic environments and experiences for the user. These experiences are minor in the minds of experienced users but will change the adoption from new users. More realistic features in apps, like lighting adjustments to match that of the room, help new users feel the authenticity of this immersive technology.

Jaime Donally goes onto to discuss that Apple’s push on innovation in the area of AR has made other companies work harder to develop their own AR software. It is "supercharged," she writes. AR has since grown in popularity because of it. Making educational applications from this kit more immersive and engaging for students.

AR provides many learning opportunities from examining details of 3D elements to bringing alive human anatomy. Augmented Reality captivates the audience with unreal experiences. Transforming these experiences into lifelong learning moments for students and teachers. The move to implement them into the classroom was once thought of as an expensive venture. It is now more accessible than can be believed. With all the company support and attention that has been brought in by Apple's influence on the market, devices are abundant.

The article gives details about the steps a teacher can take to implement the AR technology in the classroom. The first step is an exciting and unique approach by focusing on the struggle of the students. What are they having trouble within the content and then finding the AR app that fits that struggle. From here the teachers can find the best tool and locate the compatible devices they have. The market is growing for AR supported devices and apps. Cost is not a factor because of this. Utilizing student devices is also a viable option to consider. The world they comfortably function in has AR elements embedded in them even if they don't realize it. Snapchat is just one of these examples. The classroom is set for this immersive technology.

 
 

Augmented Reality is here with Apple's ARKit and Google's ARCore these are some apps that show off what is possible.

 
 

Peer Assessment and Evaluation

Augmented Reality is not the only instrument of engagement. Peer assessment and evaluation is a tool that can revamp how a classroom operates. From building respect among peers to teaching them how to be boldly honest with each other. The writings by Alzaid point to a way that peer assessment can be made to activate participation in the classroom. Empowering the students to help one another learn the content.

Among the many criticisms directed at peer assessment is the difficulty of achieving acceptable levels of honest and reliable assessment results...

(Alzaid, 2017)

The solution for this is the focus on the process and purpose of the assessment. Paying special attention to how words are spoken and the tone when feedback is delivered is crucial. A suggestion of making the peer grouping random will introduce less bias from the peers. Often times the student pairings may lead to one feeling the other is not qualified to evaluate. The article states that these kind of specific situations are also contingent on the relationship and culture the teacher has already established in the classroom.

The goal of the peer assessment is for the students to aid in evaluating each other's work. Students outnumber the teacher in the classroom and because of this see more of what is occurring with their fellow students. The grades given out by the peers is never supposed to be the only grades given but instead some of the grades. This gives the balance to the grading aspect of the content and maintains attention on the peer's words. These words will grow to be more and more comfortable for the students and more honest. The depth of the feedback will also increase as this practice is used more and more. Over time, students will anticipate the questions and evaluations that will come.

The process of peer assessments will need structure to be effective. This guidance allows for cooperation and leadership states Alzaid. The leadership is a bonus of the implementation. The result is students are more confident in their work and how they can improve at each level of the game. The cooperation is key to the development of the leadership. Students helping one another makes the process more effective each time it is used. This tool will also demonstrate the real world environment the students will be working in upon graduation.

 
 
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Conclusion

This literature has identified that Augmented Reality is not only possible but already in the implementation phase. It is being used by advanced and beginner users. AR provides many opportunities for stakeholders in the project to voice concerns and comments easily. The path to a finished project is not impeded with this technology but instead made smoother thanks to it. Adoption of the uses is something students can handle. With the visual stimulation being minimal compared to Virtual Reality, not only will students be comfortable using it but traditionally apprehensive users will quickly adapt too.

The technology for AR is available right now. The benefits of using this technology are clear. From prototyping to the presentation, Augmented Reality is helping the engineering design process take place at a faster speed and more collaboratively. Both of these things are what students of today will be using in the world of tomorrow. Preparing them for a workforce that is technologically advanced. Immersing experiences will be normal when examining construction sites and project plans. The devices located in the pockets of the students will advance to support more AR experiences and even some technology that we cannot comprehend right now.

Peer assessment combined with Augmented Reality is a viable combination for project development in classrooms. The two together can work in unison together to smooth out the engineering design process. Students will help each other grow in areas that are not always visible to the one teacher in the room. The culture of the classroom will inspire more learning.


References

ADĂSCĂLIŢEI, I., & BĂLŢOI, I.-C.-M. (2018). The Influence of Augmented Reality in Construction and Integration into Smart City. Informatica Economica, 22(2), 55–67. Retrieved from https://doi-org.libproxy.lamar.edu/10.12948/issn14531305/22.2.2018.06

Alzaid, J. M. (2017). The Effect of Peer Assessment on the Evaluation Process of Students. International Education Studies, 10(6), 159–173. Retrieved from https://libproxy.lamar.edu/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ1144698&site=eds-live

Apple. (n.d.). Apple ARKit 2 [digital image]. Retrieved from https://developer.apple.com/arkit/

Beebom. (2017, December 1). How AR Will Change The World! [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n6z3zy0oLkw

Donally, J. (2017, December 15). Immersive tech is bringing new learning opportunities to classrooms. Empowered Learner Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.iste.org/explore/articleDetail?articleid=2111&category=Empowered-Learner&article=

 
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